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  • Text and Photography by Rick Frehsee

    Bahamas walls offer breathtaking vistas, populated by colorful marine life. Whether inland or submerged in the sea, the incredible blue holes are the result of centuries of freshwater dissolving and redepositing limestone.

    Walls and blue holes are simultaneously special, and widespread, dive experiences in The Bahamas. Walls, the most generally dramatic expression of the coral reef, will at times plummet directly into the great trenches, thousands of feet deep, that line the archipelago. Blue holes, while not exclusively a phenomenon of The Bahamas, are found here in a greater number than anywhere on earth. And, The Bahamas has the only known tidal blue holes in the world. Together, the walls and blue holes turn The Bahamas dive experience on its side. Blue holes are a phenomenon created during several ice ages, when sea levels were 400 feet lower and The Bahamas was a great exposed limestone platform.

    Centuries of acidic rain water etched into the vast bank, creating circular depressions and other magnificent formations. Today, most blue holes are located in shallow water on the Great and Little Bahama Banks, while others are inland pools.

    Wall Diving in The Bahamas
    Walls are found throughout The Bahamas and their profiles range from those that end at sand bottoms 60 to 100 feet deep, to seemingly infinite vertical descents. It is along these escarpments of the deep reef that the majesty of coral spires and the magnificence of sponges is fully realized. Seafans, bryozoans, seawhips and Black Coral mix and mingle with the sponges, creating a garden carpet of life. More color and the addition of motion is provided from solitary and schooling reef fish. Every wall is similar, yet different: Profile, shape, size and predominant colors vary from site to site. The following walls are among the most stunning, popular and accessible in The Bahamas:

    The Great Lucaya or Grand Bahama Wall
    The southern coast of Grand Bahama Island is lined with a continuous fringing reef and drop-off with hundreds of wall sites featuring caves, caverns and swim-throughs. The top of the wall usually begins in about 80 feet of water.

    Lyford Cay Wall
    Off the northwest coast of New Providence Island (Nassau) is a famed coral cliff beginning in 35 feet of water.

    Southwest Wall
    Facing the Tongue of the Ocean on the New Providence side is a coral canyon several miles in length. The area adjacent to the popular shark dive sites is particularly colorful, with many sponge decorated pinnacles protruding from the wall.

    The Andros Wall
    The “greatest of all Bahama walls” is found at Andros, the largest island in the chain. The Andros Wall offers uncountable sites that display mountains and canyons of every shape and size.

    The Bimini Wall
    From the Biminis southward is a nearly continuous wall facing the Gulf Stream. The North Bimini Wall is just south of the entrance channel to North Bimini and begins in 120 feet of water. This is generally a drift dive for very experienced divers. To the south are numerous walls, such as those at South Cat Cay Wall, Victory Cays Drop-off and Riding Rock Wall—all of these are fish filled spectacles that begin in 30 to 90 feet.

    Your Expert Guides To Bahama Walls and Blue Holes
    For a professional introduction to blue hole diving, or to explore any of the fabulous Bahama walls, use this article to select the area of The Bahamas you are interested in. Then contact the dive operators located in that area, as listed in our Bahamas Diving Association members listing or visit the Bahamas Diving Association Web site at for more information.
    The Exuma Wall
    Directly off Highbourne Cay is a drop-off that faces the Exuma Sound. This is a vertical wall, 75 feet deep.

    Chub Cay Wall
    A continuous drop-off runs from the southwest tip of Chub Cay to Whale Cay, in the Berry Islands. These sites offer a variety of wall formations.

    Riding Rock Wall
    Dozens of popular wall sites are located along the western coast to the southern tip of San Salvador Island in the south-central Bahamas.

    Conception Island Wall
    Here is one of the most dramatic and colorful walls in all of the archipelago. The wall begins in 45 to 60 feet of water, its entire length decorated with spectacular sponge and coral formations.

    Diving the Blue Holes
    Blue holes that are accessible to divers are sprinkled throughout The Bahamas. Some are cavern diving experiences and others are mile-long labyrinths, off limits to sport divers. Access to blue hole diving varies; some are controlled and monitored by the Bahamas National Trust. Entry to others is policed by local organizations. Although some unique organisms are found in blue holes, the attraction here is chiefly geological—experiencing a spectacular visual realm seldom seen by other human beings. The greatest concentration of blue holes is found both inland and in the shallows of Andros Island, where more than 50 blue holes have been recorded. Other concentrations of blue holes occur on and off Grand Bahama Island (Ben’s Cavern, for example), the Exumas and Eleuthera. One of the world’s deepest blue holes is located off Long Island and is surrounded on three sides by land. A few well-known blue holes are located off Nassau, the Biminis and scattered throughout the Out Islands.

    The Bahamas Experience | Parade of Marine Life | Shark Diving | Grand Bahama Island | Bahamas Dolphins Encounters | Nassau | Out Islands of The Bahamas | Ten Reasons To Take The Whole Family | Walls and Blue Holes | Rapture of The Wrecks | Exploring The Bahamas by Live Aboard | Bahamas By Snorkel | Bahamas Diving Association | Index