Skin Diver Online HomeEnter our Email Contest
  • DIVING NEWS|
  • FEATURES|
  • ARTICLES|
  • SERVICES|
  • CONTACT US|
  • SCUBA GEAR|
  • DIVE SAFETY|
  • TRAVEL|
  • EQUIPMENT|
  • FIND|
  • [Country flag of Bermuda]

    Bermuda

    [Country map of Bermuda]

    (dependent territory of the UK)

    Geography

    Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

    Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

    Map references: North America

    Area:
    total : 50 sq km
    land: 50 sq km
    water : 0 sq km

    Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

    Land boundaries: 0 km

    Coastline: 103 km

    Maritime claims:
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

    Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Town Hill 76 m

    Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

    Land use:
    arable land: NA%
    permanent crops : NA%
    permanent pastures: NA%
    forests and woodland: 20%
    other: 80% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: NA sq km

    Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

    Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution

    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: NA
    signed, but not ratified : NA

    Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

    People

    Population: 62,569 (July 1997 est.)

    Age structure:
    0-14 years : NA
    15-64 years: NA
    65 years and over: NA

    Population growth rate: 0.75% (1997 est.)

    Birth rate: 14.92 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

    Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

    Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: NA male(s)/female
    under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
    15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
    65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
    total population: NA male(s)/female

    Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 75.03 years
    male : 73.36 years
    female: 76.97 years (1997 est.)

    Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

    Nationality:
    noun : Bermudian(s)
    adjective: Bermudian

    Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

    Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other 34% (1991)

    Languages: English

    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98%
    male : 98%
    female: 99% (1970 est.)

    Government

    Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form : Bermuda

    Data code: BD

    Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

    Government type: NA

    National capital: Hamilton

    Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

    Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

    National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

    Constitution: 8 June 1968

    Legal system: English law

    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor John MASEFIELD (since June 1997)
    head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997); Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995)
    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
    elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998)
    election results : percent of vote by party - UBP 50%, PLP 46%, independents 4%; seats by party - UBP 22, PLP 18

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court

    Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

    Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]

    International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

    Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
    consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
    mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
    telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
    FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

    Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

    Economy

    Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 200,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry attracts 91% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian's fear of scaring away foreign firms.

    GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1996 est.)

    GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

    GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $29,000 (1996 est.)

    GDP - composition by sector:
    agriculture: NA%
    industry: NA%
    services: NA%

    Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

    Labor force:
    total: 34,133
    by occupation: clerical 23%, services 23%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 16%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1995)

    Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

    Budget:
    revenues: $406.2 million
    expenditures : $405.9 million, including capital expenditures of $34.5 million (FY94/95 est.)

    Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

    Industrial production growth rate: NA%

    Electricity - capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

    Electricity - production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

    Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

    Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

    Exports:
    total value: $54 million (f.o.b., 1995)
    commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, reexports of pharmaceuticals
    partners : Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

    Imports:
    total value: $550 million (f.o.b., 1995)
    commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
    partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 5% (1995 est.)

    Debt - external: $NA

    Economic aid: $NA

    Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

    Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (February 1997; fixed rate)

    Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

    Communications

    Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

    Telephone system:
    domestic : modern, fully automatic telephone system
    international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

    Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

    Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

    Television broadcast stations: 3

    Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)

    Transportation

    Railways: 0 km

    Highways:
    total : 225 km
    paved: 225 km
    unpaved : 0 km (1997 est.)
    note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that are privately owned

    Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

    Merchant marine:
    total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,416,667 GRT/5,163,435 DWT
    ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 1, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 14, oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1, livestock carrier 1
    note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries among which are UK 26, Canada 12, US 9, Norway 7, Hong Kong 4, Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, Switzerland 2, Mexico 1, and Romania 1; Bermuda owns 48 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,911,678 DWT that operate under Australian, Bahamian, Hong Kong, Liberian, Panamanian and Singaporean registry (1996 est.)

    Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

    Military

    Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

    Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

    Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

    Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

    Transnational Issues

    Disputes - international: none