Indonesia

[Country map of Indonesia]

Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland : 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People

Population: 209,774,138 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 31% (male 33,313,149; female 32,367,905)
15-64 years: 65% (male 67,824,993; female 68,226,617)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,557,886; female 4,483,588) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.39 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.06 years
male: 59.89 years
female: 64.34 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form : Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

National capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968) and Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968) and Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 11 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998)
election results : Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO elected president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly; Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO elected vice president by consensus by the People's Consultative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 400 elected by popular vote, 100 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms; note - beginning with the elections in May 1997, the composition of the DPR will change to 425 elected representatives and 75 appointed representatives)
elections: last held 8 June 1992 (next scheduled for 29 May 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats by party - Golkar 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (de facto ruling political party based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERJADI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arifin Mohamad SIREGAR
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone : [62] (21) 344-2211
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Indonesia's sound macroeconomic management, combined with an emphasis on rapid deregulation and encouragement of private investment resulted in real GDP growth in 1991-96 averaging about 7%. This was impressive, but not sufficient to cut underemployment while absorbing the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Foreign investment has boosted manufacturing output and exports in recent years. The economy's growth is driven by continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output is based on diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Growth in 1996 was led by industry, transport, and tourism. Strong growth should continue in 1997 assuming no sharp rise in political uncertainty.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $779.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,770 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 17%
industry: 42%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 67 million
by occupation: agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and communications 3%, other 28% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $41.5 billion
expenditures: $41.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $16 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 13.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 16.27 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 58.31 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 276 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports:
total value: $49.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 51.9%, fuels 26.4%, foodstuffs 12.7%, raw materials 9.0%
partners: Japan 27.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.3%, South Korea 6.4%, Taiwan 3.9%, China 3.8%, Hong Kong 3.6% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $42.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%, fuels 7.7%
partners: Japan 22.7%, US 11.7%, Germany 6.9%, South Korea 6.0%, Singapore 5.8%, Australia 5.0%, Taiwan 4.5% (1995)

Debt - external: $110 billion (yearend 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5.5 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,393.0 (January 1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications

Telephones: 1,276,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0

Radios: 28.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 11.5 million (1992 est.)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total : 378,000 km
paved: 171,990 km
unpaved: 206,010 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 465 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,185,353 GRT/3,191,792 DWT
ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 267, chemical tanker 8, container 9, liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 102, passenger 6, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4 (1996 est.)

Airports: 413 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 386
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m : 297 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 58,556,503 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 34,439,340 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,295,832 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY97/98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin